Tyndall Site Menu

We have to date received the following reviews:

Institute of Physics (Irish Branch) Newsletter; Dr Loranne Vallely
Irish Times (an Irishwoman's Diary; Mary Mulvihill)
Technology Ireland; Tom Kennedy
Engineers' Journal; Sean Connolly
Leibniz-Archiv, Hannover; James G O'Hara
Irish Literary Supplement (Boston); Roy Johnston

We will add them here as we receive them. (RJ Ed)


Review published in the Autumn 2000 Newsletter of the Institute of Physics (Irish Branch)

Prometheus's Fire: A History of Scientific and Technological Education in Ireland
Ed. Norman McMillan


This groundbreaking source book is long overdue. McMillan's thesis is that in Ireland technical education has been a revolutionary force for educational change. As a result of its colonial past it has however acted as a double-edged sword.

The work details in a comprehensive way Ireland's history of technological education from the earliest times until 1999. Fashioned initially to assist in the "pacification" of the country, it later evolved into a vital force in the programme of those who struggled for national independence. Its history, therefore, contains closely interwoven strands of both Unionist and Nationalist traditions.

As physicists play a central role in the evolving story, the academic 'turf war' over science should make for intriguing reading. The first half of this work has a very good chronological review of Irish technological history in ten chapters. The book begins with Ryan's acclamation of Ireland's ancient craft traditions; Perez-Camacho has uncovered in Trinity's library some very crucial contributions to the Copernican system developed by Irish Jesuits, and McMillan presents a new interpretation of the colonial origins of Trinity College, Dublin. He explains the role of English radical thinkers influenced by Ramus and his follower Bacon in Trinity's foundation, and gives new insights into the origins and heritage of many of the institutions that make up modern Dublin's rich cultural landscape. Moreover, those in the north of Ireland, in particular, might welcome a new critical insight into the Unionist political creed and its relationship to science.

Kelman provides a comprehensive history of the RDS to the 19th century while Jarrell gives a wonderful insight into the machinations of the Westminster government during this reform period. MacCartáin also deals with the political intrigue at the turn of the century, in the context of the 'Godless' Queen's Colleges founded half a century previously, that led to the establishment of the National University in 1906.

In the second half of the 19th century the educational facilities of the (Royal from 1820) Dublin Society were refashioned through various reforms designed to meet the demands of Catholics and Dissenters for their own third level educational facilities.

Of special interest also to physicists is the central role they played in 19th century Irish politics. They include two extremes: Stoney and Fitzgerald in Dublin as dyed-in-the-wool Unionists advising Westminster and at the other pole, Haughton and Galbraith's role in the foundation of the Home Rule Party during this Parnellite period is elaborated.

Fitzgerald's subsequent important role in founding Kevin Street College now part of the Dublin Institute of Technology is highlighted, while Logan traces the history of modern technological education through the establishment of the Irish Free State and the 1930 Vocational Education Act. White brings matters up-to-date with his detailed history of the National Council for Educational Awards and concludes with a description of how more recent changes are designed to see the Institutes of Technology become autonomous academic institutions.

The second section of this book examines 'Landmarks in Irish Technical Education' and has an array of eleven specialist chapters. These topics include the Mechanics' Institutes in the North of Ireland and also Dublin; the Dublin Queen's Institute (perhaps the earliest experiment in women's technical education in the world); the Irish origins of technical examinations in the Royal Society of Arts which led to those of the City and Guilds; the history of apprentice education; the history of agricultural education and much more.

The last chapter deals with several of the 19th century's most significant physicists Sabine, Lardner, Stokes, Tyndall and the role of many other Irish scientists in the government of British science by the Royal Society. The various contributions are all written with a touch that makes them accessible to both the general reader and the young person, to whom the richly-illustrated book is dedicated.

If you want to know where today's Irish Celtic Tiger came from, then this book is essential reading.


Irish Times, July 31 2000

(This piece by Mary Mulvihill is not a review proper, but a comment from the feminist angle based on the chapter devoted to women's technical education. RJ Ed)

Prometheus's Fire: A History of Scientific and Technological Education in Ireland
Ed. Norman McMillan

It is hard now to imagine that, 150 years ago, society frowned on middle-class women who worked. For example, it was thought that financial independence would make such women less likely to marry. Certainly, a woman who worked would no longer be obliged to accept the first offer of marriage – and that would never do.

The world of business was also considered a dirty place. It was just about acceptable for a gentleman to go into business, but it was certainly no place for a lady. Moreover, money was tainted and even those brave enough to work might shrink from receiving their pay openly, preferring to have it conveyed to them surreptitiously. The only acceptable job for an educated lady was that of governess, but many women wanted more.

Daughters of Anglo-Irish families faced a double stigma if they had to seek employment from a 'lower order' Catholic employer. Ironically then, working-class women had greater options and probably greater freedom. So it was that a survey of women job applicants in 1860 considered that "the most helpless" were not the poor, but the daughters of the middle-classes, of clergymen and civil servants. These ladies may have had their 'accomplishments' but they were otherwise unskilled and ignorant of the ways of the world. If their financial support should ever be cut off by a husband or male relative, they were incapable of fending for themselves.

Thus in 1860 the Society for Promoting the Employment of Women in Dublin began as a kind of 'job club', matching suitable applicants with vacancies in charitable institutions and the like. But they were quickly inundated with applicants and clearly something else was needed. The result was the Queen's Institute for the Training and Employment of Educated Women, started in 1861 by Mrs Anne Jellicoe, a campaigning Quaker from Mountmellick, and Dublin businessman Henry Walker Todd. Their pioneering college was the first of its kind in Europe and similar enterprises were soon established elsewhere.

The institute offered classes in telegraphy, engraving, architectural drawing, book-keeping and woodwork, among other things. By the time it closed in 1881, vocational education for middle-class women had become a recognised part of national educational policy. Mrs Jellicoe had already helped train women in Mountmellick as seamstresses, and in Dublin she investigated working conditions in factories. If more middle-class women were employed in the workplace, she hoped conditions might improve for everyone.

She later founded Alexandra College for Girls and as this came to take more of her time, the management of the Queen's Institute fell to Miss Barbara Corlett. Less egalitarian than Jellicoe, Miss Corlett refused to run night classes for women, and did not welcome the daughters of tradespeople. The institute took premises at 25 Molesworth Street, across the road from Leinster House, then the headquarters of the RDS. The women on the organising committee enrolled themselves and their daughters in an effort to make the college look acceptable. And "with trembling delicacy" they approached the applicants at their job club and asked if they would like to attend classes. The aim was to provide useful training which it was hoped would lead to employment.

And indeed, in its first two years, half of the institute's 360 students found work. Among the companies supporting the initiative were the British & Irish Magnetic Telegraph Company, and Belleek Pottery, which had just been opened in Co Fermanagh by the local landlord to provide local employment. The telegraph company supplied equipment and an engineer to give the classes, and even paid a small grant to a number of students who were subsequently employed as telegraph clerks. Belleek Pottery recruited a number of women who had learned how to paint porcelain at the institute.

Despite such commercial support and the royal patronage of Queen Victoria and grants from the Department of Education in London, the college was always hampered by lack of money. In the 1870s a number of more commercial subjects were added to the curriculum, including French and music, in a bid to attract more students.

The Queen's Institute finally closed in 1881 after 20 years of good work, and a year after Anne Jellicoe died. Buswell's Hotel took over the Molesworth Street premises where it continues today. For a few years in the 1880s an Irish Association for the Training and Employment of Women ran similar classes from Kildare Street, before affiliating with the new technical college for artisans. Among those registering for the first plumbing class at the technical college were two women cookery teachers. Miss Corlett might not have been pleased, but Anne Jellicoe would surely have smiled.

The history of the pioneering Queen's Institute is told by Patricia Philips in a fascinating new book, Prometheus's Fire – a history of scientific and technological education in Ireland (Tyndall Publications, 610 pages £25). You can even read Patricia Philips's full chapter at the publisher's website: www.tyndallpublications.com. Other chapters by other contributors (but these are not available on the web) include essays on craftworkers, trade guilds, agricultural colleges and even Leitrim-born James Booth, who designed the modern university examination system. Anne Jellicoe is buried in the Friends Burial Ground at Mountmellick.

The author can be contacted at scients@indigo.ie regarding the right to reproduce the above material.

(c) Mary Mulvihill 2000

Technology Ireland, October 2000; review by Tom Kennedy
Prometheus's Fire

At Rathcroghan near Tulsk in County Roscommon it was the custom to hold a great fair, or Feis, during which marriages were approved, races run, and disputes settled. Smiths, masons and carpenters came to compete for recognition as master craftsmen, and after the fair they travelled far before settling down to apply their skills. Wherever they settled the masters set the test which young people had to pass before being allowed enter the trade as apprentices. That was a long time ago, the grass had grown over Rathcroghan, just as the detritus of intense living at Wood Quay in Dublin covered up the trial pieces discarded centuries ago by carvers learing their craft. There is nothing new about learning technology, or indeed science, in Ireland, but we have had a stormy history, and on several occasions the flame of knowledge was almost extinguished. The Gaelic order was overthrown, the Norsemen are only remembered as a gang of raiders, and in turn anything which happened before independence was not supposed to have happened at all.

Breaking the link was necessary, but in an over-enthuiastic discarding of cultural rubbish, far too many connections with the past were severed. Industry suffered, and in schools, science, which had been introduced by far-sighted reformers in the 19th century, was dropped. It took the best part of a century to rectify that particular mistake, and it's interesting to note that the fostering of scientific enquiry, which is making a welcome return in primary schools, was being advocated more than a century and a half ago in County Wicklow by John Synge, grandfather of the dramatist. In the book 'Prometheus's Fire', Clieve Williams, a former lecturerer in education at TCD, explains how Synge, having made the Grand Tour, returned to Ireland fired by the ideas of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, whose school he had visited at Yverdon. The Pestalozzian approach, based on harnessing natural curiousity, while widely adopted in Europe, was regarded with hostile suspicion in Britain, but Synge, wealthy enough to be independent, founded a special school at Glanmore, Co Wicklow, so that children, regardless of background, could benefit from a type of education which was far in advance of anything else available in Ireland or Britain at the time. Synge's pioneering efforts inspired others, and Clieve Williams includes a telling account of how one teacher who went on to England was dismissed on the grounds that the children of servants should not be allowed learn more than their masters!

Clive William's account of Synge's Pestalozzian school is just one of the chapters in a remarkable book which sets the record straight on education in Ireland. The editor, Dr Normman McMillan, has assembled material on every aspect of scientific and technical education, and in 21 chapters the 13 authors have produced a comprehensive history of education in Ireland.

Apart from the section on Synge, there are chapters on technical education from early Irish crafts, to the current national awards scheme, Seamus Duffy gives an account of the Mechanics' Institutes, R Jarrell and A O'Sullivan report on agricultural education, and Norman McMillan writes about the substantial contributions made by Irish reformers to science and education in general. Norman belongs with the all-round reformers, and apart from being the editor, and apparently the publisher of this great book, he is also the inventor of a novel 'drop analyser', and he has been spearheading a campaign to rediscover the scientific heros of the past, such as John Tyndall, who first explained why the sky is blue.

'Prometheus's Fire' with over 600 closely set pages is more like three or four books in one, so, while being content rich, and excellent value for Ir£24, it's a bit hard to digest.

Prometheus's Fire, edited by Dr N McMillan , from Tyndall Publications, is Ir24 softback, or £Ir£42 hardback. Available from the publisher, 'White Butts', Killeshin Road, Graiguecullen, Carlow (post and packing £Ir5 extra), or from booksellers.

Tom Kennedy
Engineers Journal Vol 55 no 8 November 2000; review by editor.
Prometheus's Fire

Prometheus's Fire gives the first comprehensive account of the history of the university and technological educational system and apprentice training.

It gives origins of both Irish science and engineering. The important role of 19th century Irish scientists.

It describes the educational and political struggles in a country that was the first to establish itself as an independent economy. The history of the RDS on the island of Ireland.

It describes woman's technical education in Britain and Ireland. It also details the pioneering 'learning-by-doing education' developments for the very young by Maria and Richard Edgeworth and the associated contempory Pestalozzian innovations of John Synge in Wicklow.

It deals with the history of national facilities such as the Botanic Gardens, National Gallery, National library, National Museum, Geological Survey etc.

It explains the Irish origins of technical examinations in the English speaking world and the origins of practical science and engineering teaching in Britain and Ireland.

The book is notable also in that it is one of the first ever to be produced as a web version as you will be able to see from the web site http://www.tyndallpublications.com.

Orders: Visit the web site above to order on-line or order from the IEI’s library.


Prometheus’s Fire. A History of Scientific and Technological Education in Ireland

Review by: James G.O'Hara

Leibniz-Archiv Niedersächsische Landesbibliothek Hannover Germany

Editor Dr Norman McMillan, assisted by D.D.G. McMillan and Dr J. Cooke ISBN 0 9525974 0 3 Typeset and printed by: Modern Printers, Kilkenny, Ireland, 1999, 610pp.

The editor of this volume Norman McMillan (Mac to his friends), a Canadian based at Carlow Institute of Technology, has been involved in Irish vocational and technical education for almost thirty years. Since his arrival in 1971 he has been an enthusiastic promoter of history of science and technology, especially in the educational context.

Having developed a passionate interest in John Tyndall, the previously-neglected local hero (or rather anti-hero because of his Unionism) who became Faraday's successor at the Royal Institution, McMillan has made a variety of contributions to Tyndall scholarship and to the popularisation of science and history of science, organising conferences, museum and travelling exhibitions, a programme of commemorative plaques throughout Ireland and a Tyndall lecture.

In the present volume he has assembled a range of contributions from local and international authors treating scientific, technical and vocational education in Ireland over the past 400 years. The editor considers vocational education in Ireland to have operated over the past 70 years under the 'most enlightened' 1930 Vocational Education Act - an event compared in the title to Prometheus's gift to Greek civilisation. McMillan has contributed three of the twenty one chapters himself.

On 'The Transmogrification of the Colonial Tradition of Mathematics, Science and Engineering' he stresses the importance of what he interprets as a Baconian tradition in Irish education. This developed its first roots from the activities of the Baconians and other enthusiasts for technical education in Trinity College and in the Dublin Philosophical Society of the seventeenth century. In another chapter McMillan examines mathematical, scientific and engineering reform in Dublin University before the twentieth century and in the concluding chapter he attempts to document some of the contributions to the government and reform of British science and education by Irishmen since the eighteenth century. All three chapters reflect MacMillan's very individual and personal interpretation of history.

Juan Jose Perez-Camacho's essay 'Late Renaissance Humanism and the Dublin Scientific Tradition (1592-1641)' points out that some individuals closely connected with Ireland were at the forefront of astronomical thought in the period. He considers the influence of the Spanish Dominican Domingo de Soto (1495-1560), of Christopher Holywood (1562-1626), whose efforts led to the establishment of a Jesuit College in Dublin and of James Ussher, the first of the Irish Copernicans.

Richard Jarrell of Toronto is author of a chapter 'Technical Education and Colonialism in Ireland in the Nineteenth Century' and coauthor of one on 'Agricultural Education in Ireland'. Jarrell's analysis of the quasi-colonial situation of Ireland provides a professional historian's framework for a series of other contributions by local specialists and is one of the highlights of the book. One milestone was the advent of Mechanics Institutes in Ireland - in all some 28 such institutes were established in Ireland which, although representing a borrowed concept in an inappropriate setting, did prove an important innovation.

Other milestones were the passing of the Technical Instruction Act of 1889, following political lobbying by Horace Plunkett and his parliamentary 'Recess Committee', and the establishment of the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction in 1900. Jarrell concludes that the misunderstanding of the relationship between industry and education, in particular the expectation that a technically-educated population could pave the way for industrialization, contributed to the failure of technical instruction in Ireland.

This picture is reinforced by two other contributions on 'The Mechanics Institutes of North-East Ulster' by the late Seamus Duffy and Jim Cooke's 'The Dublin Mechanics' Institute, 1824-1919'. Irish technical and vocational education policy was characterized by a spirit of imitation of British industrialization. The only region of Ireland to become industrialized was the northeast, in particular Belfast and its hinterland, but commercial centres in Leinster and Munster were also significant. Thus within two years of the founding of the Glasgow and London Mechanics' Institutes in 1823 similar bodies were being started in Belfast, Armagh, Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Ennis and Galway. Duffy concludes that, whereas the Institutes of Armagh, Antrim and Down may not have had the membership or continuity of some of the larger English ones, they served a purpose in starting certain young men on the road to a greater understanding of the complexities of the new technological age.

The Dublin Institute started with enthusiasm and its membership grew steadily to 2700 in 1849 but, in the end, it failed to fulfill its educational role and was superseded by Kevin Street Technical School set up by Dublin Corporation in 1887. The Institute became famous, however, as a lecture venue and theatre, becoming the Abbey Theatre in 1904. During the nineteenth century the Institute became a centre for the Young Ireland and Fenian political movements, as well as of the socialist and trade union movements, and in 1869 Friedrich Engels lectured there. Cooke concludes that during its 95 years of existence, the Dublin Mechanics' Institute played a role in early industrial education and, through its classrooms, library, reading room, lecture hall and theatre, was a focus for all, and a home to working men in revolutionary and peaceful times.

Technical school curricula and examinations represent another area of interest. Here the late Frank Foden MBE's contribution 'James Booth LLD FRS' deserves particular mention. Booth, who hailed from the West of Ireland, was professionally associated with the Liverpool Collegiate Institution and was founder of the Society of Arts system of examinations. Foden argues that Booth's activities at the Society of Arts between 1853 and 1857 represent a major shift in the evolution of secondary and further education, providing them with a mode of assessment and a process of curricular design quite different from those of most other European countries. The main model adopted by Booth was that of the system of examining at Trinity College Dublin from 1825 to 1840.

Patricia Phillips' contribution 'The Queen's Institute, Dublin (1861-1881)' examines the state of middle-class women in Victorian Britain and early efforts to provide technical education and training before turning to the Dublin Institute. This was the first technical college for women in the British Isles, or indeed in Europe, we are told. Founded to provide industrial education for middle-class women, it secured patronage (even from Queen Victoria herself), sponsorship and attracted students for over twenty years, and may have served as a model for similar institutions elsewhere. However, It did not take as its own model the privileged liberal education traditionally enjoyed by men, bur rather, in accepting that women had to be self-sufficient, it attempted to produce not merely decorative but useful and independent members of society.

After some initial success - more than a thousand young women enrolled in the first nine years - a need was felt to attract a wider clientele, and a great part of the original technical curriculum was replaced by standard school subjects like music and French. By 1879 it had developed into a seminary similar to a dozen other ladies' establishments, and by 1882 the Institute had ceased to exist. It was in time replaced by the Irish (later Royal Irish) Association for the Training and Employment of Women.

The present volume was published privately, under difficult circumstances, and lacks in places the high-quality printing standards of major publishing houses that we have become accustomed to. In addition a number of the authors are non-professional historians, some of whom have also been omitted from the list and description of contributors. Nonetheless a lot of new ground has been covered and, on balance, it has been a praiseworthy undertaking. It would be an excellent starting point for a Ph.D. thesis on the history of technical education in Ireland.

James G.O'Hara Leibniz-Archiv Niedersächsische Landesbibliothek Hannover Germany

Review by Dr Roy Johnston (Techne Associates, Dublin)(1)

Irish Literary Supplement, September 2001

(published annually by Boston College for the US Irish Studies community)

(The book was reviewed along with two recent books by the late Derry Kelleher, each of which had material relating to science, technology and politics in the Irish context)

The three books under review share several common features. They are from small niche author-editor-publishers who share an interest in the Enlightenment political tradition, together with an interest in the cultural role of science, and the cultural barriers preventing science assuming the elite status necessary for viability in an emerging national culture.

Even in paperback all three books weigh heavy, the 'postage and packing' to the US being in the region of £10 additional. They should however appeal to those cultural and political historians who have woken up to the existence of scientific and technological dimensions to Irish cultural studies.

There are signs of the emergence of the embryo of such a school within the Irish Studies community, as evidenced for example by JW Foster's socio-technical and cultural analysis of the Titanic disaster and its Belfast background, and his more recent scientific and cultural history Nature in Ireland (Lilliput 1997).

I should also perhaps instance some work in the University of Illinois by Salim Rachid(2), who mentions the work of my father Joe Johnston (1890-1972) on Bishop Berkeley as economist, in support of his (Rachid's) thesis regarding the existence of an 'Irish School of Economic Development 1720-1750'. This school included Berkeley, Molyneux, Swift, Dobbs and Prior, and was closely linked to applied-scientific development activity via the Dublin Society.

Rachid distinguishes this group from the 'Merchantilists' with whom all economic ideas prior to Adam Smith have tended to be uncritically identified by historians of economic thought, and shows how the 'Irish School of Economic Development' were in fact Adam Smith precursors. My father went further and regarded Berkeley as being a Keynes precursor. I suggest that there is perhaps some raw material here for exploitation by scholars interested in the historical roots of development economics, and the relation between the latter and scientific technology. I would go further and suggest that in the composition of this group, with the strong scientific component as expressed in Dobbs and Prior, we have a good model which in current development economic thinking needs to be recaptured. The key to economic development is technical competence in the useful arts, and this was the Dublin Society's prime objective.

I take this opportunity of drawing the Rachid work to the attention of the Irish Studies community, as it has surfaced primarily in the 'development economics' community in a global third-world context. The status of Ireland, and Irish Studies, as an important resource in the global study of the colonial to post-colonial transition, and the 'science and society' cultural interaction in this context, needs more emphasis than it has been getting hitherto. I have also encountered a science dimension in Irish literary studies through an e-mail correspondence with Margot Backus, who picked up on Marconi references in the work of Brian Friel. There is a considerable Irish dimension in Marconi studies; not only was his mother a (whiskey) Jameson but he did much of his early radio experimentation in various Irish locations, most of which are celebrated locally but unknown nationally, and the first use of radio transmission to convey news for the press related to a sporting event near Dublin.

Enough of this background, however; let us consider the books. Prometheus's Fire: a History of Scientific and Technological Education in Ireland; ed Norman McMillan, Tyndall Publications 2000, £24 pb, £42 hb; ISBN 0 9525974 0 3

In his first encounter with Trinity College in 1971 Dr Norman McMillan was shown around the Physics Department, and in passing his attention was drawn to a heap of old notebooks, which he was told belonged to GF Fitzgerald (a physics luminary of the 1880s and 90s celebrated along with Lorentz as an Einstein-precursor) but it seemed no-one wanted them. [There was no sense at the time that these might have been historically important. Gradually however, with the aid of Provost McConnell, Gordon Herries Davies (who has authored the history of the Geological Survey of Ireland), David Spearman and others a sense of the need to conserve historical artefacts and documents relating to science became more widely known.]

As a result of this experience McMillan, while teaching physics in Carlow, and engaging in innovative instrumentation development work, has brought together a significant collection of papers from a variety of authors on various aspects of the history of technical, technological and scientific education in Ireland, the result of which is this book.

JG Ryan, on 'Early Irish Crafts and Apprenticeships', traces the history of apprenticeship back 5 millennia, with the aid of the Talmud, Babylonian and Egyptian sources. There was parallel recognition of the process in Ireland under the Brehon Law, where craft skills were hereditary or passed on by fosterage. [The author outlines at length the history of craft work in pre-Norman Irish society, explaining why it did not evolve towards a guild model.] The guild system, as it evolved in mediaeval Europe from the 11th century, came into Ireland with the Normans, and became established in the main towns, primarily Dublin, but on the basis of excluding the Irish; after the Reformation this was reinforced on a religious basis. As a consequence the Dublin guild system acted as a barrier to the survival of the native Irish craft culture, which declined into an underworld existence.

Dr Juan José Pérez-Camacho, on 'Late Renaissance Humanism and the Dublin Scientific Tradition (1592-1641)', analyses the elite of the colonial culture concentrated in TCD: Ussher, Lydyat and Carpenter. Lydyat in his ''De Natura Coeli' published in 1605 attacked the Aristotelian system, and was a supporter of Tycho Brahe. [The Copernican system was slow to become generally accepted, but Carpenter and Ussher made the issues known to the Irish-based scientific community, with Ussher advocating the Keplerian heliocentric system.] Another contribution to the understanding of early science in Ireland was the editing of the work of John Duns Scotus by Luke Wadding, at the Irish Franciscan College in Rome. The works of Duns Scotus, who was an early mediaeval supporter of the heliocentric system, were known to Ussher. This promising early linkage between Irish intellectuals, both native and colonial, and the European scientific renaissance was cut short in the 1640s, in the context of the European religious wars, which assumed catastrophic intensity in Ireland during the Cromwell period.

There follow three chapters by McMillan with others covering the links with Protestantism, the scientific societies, and the 19th century reform movement; Church-State relations, and the Baconian theory of the State. The Tudor monarchy used Trinity College as a means of exiling from England intellectuals of the Puritan persuasion, perceived as a threat. There was a 'Baconian' movement in Ireland aimed at disseminating scientific knowledge among tradesmen and artisans which included the Dublin Society (1731), the Society of Arts (1754) and the Society of Improvers (1723).

In Chapter 5 McMillan makes the case that TCD has consistently played a pioneering role in the reform of university education in the UK as a whole, beginning with the example of Bartholemew Lloyd who introduced French mathematical notation in 1815, overthrowing what by then had become the 'dead hand of Newton', and risking being labelled as subversive in the political reaction of the time.

Richard Jarrell, of York (Toronto) in Chapter 6 compares: technical education in the core industrial nations of Europe, and in the US;. Germany, a late arrival, leapfrogged Britain by central State initiatives aimed at producing an educated workforce, and industrial PhDs were the norm. Irish experience is interesting because it falls between that of the US and that of the Colonies. Agriculture, as practiced by the 'improving landlords' with the aid of the RDS, was the main channel for technical education, and this trend led to Plunkett and the Recess Committee at the end of the century. The 'Mechanics Institute' movement in the Irish context was however a false start; they made sense in Britain, keeping factory workers out of the pubs, but in Ireland they became middle-class clubs; they were a 'borrowed concept in an inappropriate setting'.

Sean McCartain in Chapters 7 and 8 traces the rise of technical education in the context of the development of the fruits of the Recess Committee. In the background the author concentrates on obstacles placed in way of technical education by dominant laissez-faire philosophy of government. It was opposition from Liverpool Financial Reform Association which killed the Model Agricultural Schools. Most initiatives were therefore via private subscriptions, from people such as Bianconi in Clonmel and Crawford in Cork. A turning-point was the 1884 Royal Commission on Technical Instruction (Samuelson) which laid the basis for subsequent local government involvement, once this was established in 1898. Education in the principles underlying a trade was distinguished from 'learning a trade', thus getting round the 'laissez-faire' objectors. Important as this was, it was focused on England, and it took the 1895 Recess Committee, organised by Sir Horace Plunkett, to develop the political leverage which arose from Samuelson, using for example the extraordinary discrepancy in the public money spent on science, art and technical instruction per head of population between England (over £3) and Ireland (one old penny).

The Recess Committee met in the Dublin Mansion House, organised to pick up experience from abroad, and produced a seminal report which led eventually to setting up the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction, with Plunkett in the lead. The author develops many interesting themes relating to Home Rule politics and religion in this context. The Recess Committee included Father Thomas Findlay, the co-operative activist priest, and Rev Dr Kane, the Grand Master of the Belfast Orange Lodge.

Other chapters cover the development of the Vocational Education Committees' curricula and the emergence of the National Council for Educational Awards, modern apprenticeship procedures, case studies of historic Mechanics Institute episodes, the development of the examination system under the influence of James Booth, agricultural education, early teacher trade unionism, the role of local government and central government.

There is a chapter by Clive Williams on the Pestalozzi method in technical education (learning by doing); this, in the context of general and technical education, became established in England after 1822 thanks to the prior work of John Synge of Glanmore, the grandfather of JM Synge, by a convoluted route which the author traces.

In Chapter 19, which is given in full on the Tyndall Publications web-site(3), Patricia Phillips traces the history of the Queens Institute, Dublin (1861-1881); this was the first technical college for women in Europe. The problem of how to employ 'gentlewomen' had emerged in Britain as a consequence of the restrictive middle-class mores of the Victorian era. Teaching and governess-ing were the only open professions. It was addressed by early feminists, in the spirit of Mary Wollstonecraft the 18th century feminist pioneer. In England there was founded in 1859 the Society for the Promotion of Employment of Women. The author goes at some length into the English feminist and radical roots of this, and then makes the link into Ireland via the 1861 conference of the Association, which took place in Dublin.

The prime movers in the Irish initiative which followed were the Quaker Anne Jellicoe (celebrated as the founder of Alexandra College) and Barbara Corlett. The former was married to a mill-owner, whose attempts to educate and train the local girls in useful arts had fallen foul of the Catholic Church, and the latter was the daughter of a coach-spring manufacturer. They had to overcome the social barriers between perceived 'gentility' and work and this in the Irish environment proved to be more acute a problem than in England. Dublin was awash with impecunious gentlewomen, consequent on the numerous bankruptcies of estates due to the famine.

Rather than attempting to invent 'suitable' occupations for distressed gentry, they decided to embark on a technical training centre for women, to teach the basic skills of industry and commerce. They got patronage from leading citizens and from Royalty, and set up classes covering a wide range of skills, including telegraphy, photography, engraving. They got industrial sponsorship from the B and I Magnetic Telegraph Co. Shortly after this time Anne Jellicoe took up her post with the nascent Alexandra College, leaving Barbara Corlett to run the show according to her lights, which were however somewhat restricted to the 'decaying gentry' market. Ms Corlett steered the curriculum away from the practical arts, towards things like French and music, considered more ladylike. In the 1880s an attempt was made to return to the original aims of the 1861 project by a group of influentials, and a new Association for the Training and Employment of Women was set up. The Provost of Trinity College participated, along with the great and the good. The initiative was subsumed into the overall Dublin technical education system, which was open to women from the outset.

The references for each chapter are extensive at the end of the book, sometimes interspersed with explanatory notes, and there is a reasonably comprehensive index. The publishers are indebted to the Irish Vocational Education Association for sponsorship. The book deserves the attention of the increasing number of historians who are concerned with the cultural impact on their period of the state of the practical arts.....

Buried Alive in Ireland: a Story of a 20th Century Inquisition; Derry Kelleher, Justice Books, Fernhurst, Hillside Road, Greystones, Co Wicklow, 2001; 490pp £20 pb (add £10 for postage)

The message conveyed by 'Prometheus' is one of a serious culture-gap between the practical arts, including the application of the global science culture to the specific problems encountered in a developing post-colonial nation like Ireland, on the one hand, and on the other hand the culture of the Irish government establishment, dominated as it was by civil servants without any college education, and imbued with a Christian Brother culture of rote-learned book-knowledge.

Kelleher shares with the present writer a background in science and technology, and a tradition of swimming aganist the tide of emigration in the 1950s, in order to try to convey a vision derived from the classic Enlightenment republican political message, and its Marxist consequences, in the somewhat obscurantist Irish environment of the day. Unknown to me in my parallel Trinity College universe in the 1940s, Kelleher did a science degree in Univerisity Collge Cork, after a period of internment in the Curragh.

He was associated with the development of the Cork Socialist Party, which ran public lectures on topics like 'science and socialism', 'on the Jewish question', 'West Cork Pioneers of Socialism' (a key such pioneer being William Thompson to whom Marx was indebted for his 'labour theory of value', and who figures in James Connolly's Labour in Irish History), getting a good vote for Micheal O Riordain in the 1946 by-election, upstaging the catholic-nationalist right-wing Aiseiri group (mostly Fianna Fail dissidents), and triggering by its success a virulent anti-communist campaign led by Alfred O'Rahilly, of which the result was that Kelleher after getting his degree had to emigrate. He went to Trinidad, where he began to pick up the experience that led to his becoming a full-fledged chemical engineer, with experience in the sugar and petroleum industries, both relevant to Irish economic development.

Kelleher attributed most of the trouble he had subsequently in getting back to Ireland to this O'Rahilly 'Inquisition', which process underlies the title of the book. The present reviewer, after an apprenticeship with the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris, spent a relatively sheltered 1950s in the Dublin Institute of Advanced Studies, a cosmopolitan enclave where world-class scientific research was done, attracting students from abroad, to work under people like Schroedinger (who invented quantum-mechanoics), Lanczos (an Einstein collaborator from his Princeton period), Synge (JL, the nephew of JM the playwright, and a respected world-class relativist) and our own Cormac O Ceallaigh, the discoverer of the K-meson. O Ceallaigh had to spend most of his time fighting the civil service constraints imposed on the DIAS, which had been set up by a well-intentioned de Valera in the 1940s as a haven for anti-fascist refugee scholars. But Dev had no idea how science worked, and he set it up in isolation from the TCD and UCD postgraduate systems, which if let it could have helped to catalyse into a dyamic Dublin-based cross-cultural unity.

Thus Kelleher and I were both, in different ways, victims of the intellectual partition of the Free State university system, mirroring the political partition of the country. During his spell in the Fawley oil-refinery in the 1950s he encountered the Irish trainees who had been sent there in preparation for the Whitegate oil-refinery project, and he has some critical things to say about the socio-technical aspects of this, and the workings of the Free State establishment mafias. Although nominally declared a 'republic' in 1948 Kelleher consistently identifies trhe '26-counties' as the 'Free State', with the true inclusive all-Ireland Republic remaining a distant vision.

During the 1960s Derry Kelleher was involved with the present writer in an attempt to set up a Kane-Bernal Society, the objective of which was to pick up on the legacies of Sir Robert Kane and Desmond Bernal where they related to the role of science and technology in the Irish national economic and cultural context. He has kind words to say about Joseph O'Reilly the Cork chemistry professor who had defended him against the 'O'Rahilly Inquisition', and Colm O h-Eocha the National Science Council chairman, whom he credits with knowledge of something of the Bernal legacy.

Sir Robert Kane FRS is perhaps most remembered as the first President of Queens College Cork, where as a Catholic he attempted to make the foundation acceptable to Catholics, despite Cardinal Cullen's 'Godless Colleges' ban. He was a scientist of world standing, having served his time with Liebig in Germany; he had produced a global best-selling textbook on chemistry. JD Bernal FRS (born in Nenagh 1901) invented the analytical technology which enabled Watson and Crick to identify the structure of DNA in the 1950s; he also pioneered 'science and society' studies, and the study of the development of science itself using the methods of science. Both were active at the interface between science and politics, as have been Kelleher and I from the 1950s to date.

Kelleher then develops an apparent digression into the background of the Orange Order and the Boyne mythology, with the Pope being in alliance with William in the Augsburg League, and then goes into the Dissenting tradition in the North, which he correctly credits as the originator of modern Republicanism, quoting my father Joe Johnston who in the Seanad on 2/02/1939 reminded us that '..the men behind the walls of Derry were better Republicans than the beseigers..'.

His analysis of the decline of 'official Sinn Fein' towards its present 'Workers party' role is insightful, but better treated in the second publication under review. During the late 1960s and early 70s Kelleher was active in the 'Christian-Marxist Dialogue' in the spirit of Teilhard de Chardin, and also in the work of the Dublin Wolfe Tone Society which was then in the lead of the republican politicisation process, with the present writer also involved. His treatment of the events leading up to the 1970 split, and the foundation of the Provisionals, is insightful, uncovering the negative roles of both the irridentist catholic-nationalism of Blaney et al, and the adventurist ultra-leftism of the Queens students who with the 'Peoples Democracy' group undermined the work of the NI Civil Rights Association. He gives credit to the latter and to Tony Coughlan for the attempt to develop in 1970 a campaign for a Bill of Rights, which if it had been pursued with vigour would have give us the current Good Friday Agreement situation without the decades of mayhem.

We have a book here which will be mined by future historians seeking to understand the problems confronting the development of political ideas in the context of Connolly's 'Carnival of Reaction' which the latter predicted would be the consequence of the partition of the country. Some will find it a good read; many will find it infuriating, but will read it all the same.

Irish Republicanism - an Authentic Perspective, Derry Kelleher, Justice Books, Fernhurst, Hillside Road, Greystones, Co Wicklow, 2001; 490pp £20 pb (add £10 for postage).

Kelleher adds two different sub-titles; on the title-page we have 'through truth to enlightened action, peace and Irish unity', and at the beginning of the Preface we have 'a primer for peace in the millennium'.

The 20-page preface opens with a quote from Nelson Mandela. He dedicates the book to his mentors whom he identifies as Mick Kelly, in whose history classes in the Curragh Internment Camop in 1940 Kelleher learned to question school history, Desmond Greaves as the progenitor of the Civil Rights approach to Northern political radicalisation, and George Gilmore as the founder of the 1934 Republican Congress and as a living link with the Dissenter republican tradition.

Together with the other book, we have an attempt by the author to place on record a lifetime of struggle and marginalisation, in his attempt to rescue the Enlightenment tradition of the 1790s Dissenters, with their inclusive Republic, from the unwelcome overlay of Catholic nationalism and from the dead hand of the Fenian conspiratorial tradition. The former he attributes to British influence in the way they set up Maynooth, and the latter he identifies as pervading Free State establishment thinking, surfacing with particularly pernicious consequences in 1970, with active support given to the emergence of the Provisionals by elements in the then Dublin Government, and the consequent undermining of the NI Civil Rights Association and its campaign for a Bill of Rights.

Both books share a concern about the culture-gap between political leaderships (whether mainstream or emergent left-republican) and the application of scientific technology in the Irish context, concerning issues such as the Whitegate refinery, production of nitrogen fertiliser at the Avoca works, or the Asahi synthetic fibre works at Killala. There is a socio-technical dimension, and he documents the interaction with the present writer on the various issues.

The first book is Kelleher's personal odessey, while the second focuses on the 1960s politicisation of Sinn Fein and the then IRA, on the Provisional split, and on the subsequent erosion of the embryonic 1960s Enlightenment republican tradition within the post-split 'officials' and its substitution by a pseudo-marxist 'workerist' economism, with the evolution of the movement towards its current 'Workers Party' situation, and the subsequent shedding of its opportunist political wing towards the Labour Party via the Democratic Left.

The first half of the book is taken up with historical background, in the form of a polemical re-interpretation of Irish history from a variety of sources. To get its flavour I can perhaps quote some of the chapter heads and sub-heads. Foreword: Republicanism is not a Papish invention... when English Rule was Rome Rule... King Billy and the Battle of the Boyne, Fact and Fantasy: the League of Augsburg... the class issue at the Boyne... the fate of the Presbyterians after William's victory... The Legacy of the English Revolution: ...international significance.. economic and social determinants.. the Irish Dimension... the New Model Army, the Levellers and the Diggers... He instances the mutiny of Cromwell's army at Banbury on May 2 1649, the Leveller leaders holding that '...the cause of the Irish natives ... was the very same with our cause here...' He argues that the first supporters of, and martyrs for, the Irish Republic were the English Levellers who attempted to resist being sent to Ireland.

Kelleher then has a chapter on the French Revolution, the Nation, the wars of intervention and the Bonapartist counter-evolution, leading in to a chapter of the Legacy of Wolfe Tone and the United Irishmen. The key point in this section is that Tone's Argument on behalf of the Catholics was addressed to the Dissenters, and he recognised that the '...historically anomalous position of the Catholics vis-a-vis the Stuart dynasty was the cause of the lingering prejudice against them amongst the Dissenters..'.

He follows with a chapter (the Genesis of Neo-Colonialism) in which, leaning heavily on Connolly, he adumbrates the arguments for the key role of the British in setting up the Catholic Church as their 'moral constabulary', and the role of O'Connell in keeping Protestants out of the Repeal movement. In passing he relates the arguments to the politics of the NICRA and Stormont.

He continues with 'The Lessons of the Civil Rights Struggle' which illustates Connolly's 'carnival of reaction', and shows how the Civil Rights movement was destablised from the right by catholic-nationalism and from the ultra-left by the 'Peoples Democracy'. He credits the Cameron Report with recognising the constructive role of the then politicising republican movement. Bloody Sunday killed the last vestiges of potential for the Civil Rights approach, and Kelleher attacks bitterly the pathological 'official republican' response to it with the Aldershot bombing.

In this context he is also critical of my evaluation of Goulding in a letter to the press round the time of his funeral last year. I accept his criticism; Goulding's attempts to manage the politicisation process was indeed deeply flawed and inconsistent, and I hope to treat this in some depth elsewhere in due course.

The remainder of the book is taken up with an attempted critical analysis of Fianna Fail, the demise of 'official republicanism', Orange mythology etc; this is the least satisfactory part of the book but even in its incomplete state it gives a myriad of trails for researchers to follow, and poses many unanswered questions.

The notes and references are extensive but their editing leaves a lot to be desired. Books on this scale badly need indexes, and we must wait for this, alas, until a second edition. In fact, the two books would benefit hugely by being put together into one, edited down and indexed, a technical challenge for an empathetic modern historian dedicated to resurrecting the embers of the Enlightenment tradition in the philosophy of the Irish Republic.

Notes and References

1. Dr Roy Johnston rjtechne@iol.ie is an applied-scientific consultant who has written extensively on 'science and society' questions, mostly in the Irish context; a selection is accessible on hs web-site http://www.iol.ie/~rjtechne.

2. cf s-rashid@ux1.cso.uiuc.edu; the paper is in the Manchester School, Vol LVI, no 4, December 1988.

3. see http://www.tyndallpublications.com where there is also an abstract given for each chapter.


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